Al-Quds University’s GHG Emissions Reporting

by admsusint

An In-depth Look into Our Compliance with the GHG Protocol Corporate Standard

Al-Quds University's GHG Emissions Reporting - Contains Last Conducted Inventory

Al-Quds University's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting
Reflecting Most Recent Emissions Inventory

1         Introduction

Al-Quds University has long been an advocate of environmental responsibility, and this commitment finds expression in our efforts to track and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from our operations. We recognize that climate change is a significant global challenge and that all institutions, including higher education, play an essential role in addressing this issue. This report provides a detailed account of our latest GHG emissions inventory conducted in 2022 in alignment with the GHG Protocol Corporate Standard, the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage GHG emissions.

1.1        Year of the Conducted Inventory

In 2022, we conducted our most recent comprehensive inventory of GHG emissions associated with Al-Quds University’s operations. This inventory forms part of our ongoing efforts to track and reduce our carbon footprint in alignment with international standards and best practices, and it serves as a crucial indicator of our progress towards sustainability.

1.2        The Importance of GHG Emissions Inventory

An emissions inventory is an essential component of our sustainability strategy, helping us identify and quantify our sources of GHG emissions. This crucial exercise not only contributes to global efforts to mitigate climate change but also enables us to monitor our progress, identify areas for improvement, and strategize on the most effective ways to reduce our carbon footprint.

1.3        Data Collection and Calculation Methodology

Our GHG emissions inventory is a detailed process involving the collection of comprehensive data from various sources and employing established calculation methodologies.

Data collection is one of the most crucial steps in compiling our GHG emissions inventory. We collected data from several sources to ensure a comprehensive representation of our GHG emissions. The primary sources of our data include:

  • Invoices: Utility invoices provided essential data for energy use within our campus, including natural gas and electricity. These documents contained precise records of our monthly energy consumption.
  • Suppliers: We collaborated with our suppliers to obtain data on emissions from sources such as transport fuels and refrigerants used in our operations.
  • Financial Reports: Our internal financial records provided valuable information regarding expenditure on certain goods and services associated with indirect GHG emissions. These included items like ICT hardware and telecommunication services, security services, cleaning services, and business travel.
  • Surveys: To gather data on elements like staff commuting practices, surveys were conducted among our staff, students, and faculty members.

The collected data were then quantified using established calculation methodologies. The GHG Protocol Corporate Standard categorizes GHG emissions into three scopes, each with its own calculation method.

Scope 1: Direct GHG Emissions: Our direct GHG emissions come from sources owned or controlled by Al-Quds University. These emissions primarily result from the combustion of natural gas and transport fuels, as well as the use of refrigerants in our cooling systems. For each type of fuel, we utilized standard emission factors, a set value that converts activity data (like the volume of gas combusted) into GHG emissions. Emission factors typically represent the average emission rate of a given GHG for a given source, relative to units of activity.

Scope 2: Energy Indirect GHG Emissions: Our indirect emissions stem from the electricity we purchase and use. We calculated these emissions by applying an emission factor to our total electricity consumption. The emission factor represents the average emissions generated per unit of electricity consumed, taking into account how the electricity was produced.

Scope 3: Other Indirect GHG Emissions: These emissions occur from sources not owned or controlled by Al-Quds University but are a consequence of our activities. They’re often the most challenging to quantify but can significantly contribute to our carbon footprint. To calculate Scope 3 emissions, we primarily used expenditure data (from Surveys, financial reports and invoices) and applied relevant emission factors. For instance, to estimate emissions from staff commuting, we used survey data on commuting habits and applied emission factors based on the mode of transport and average distance traveled.

2         Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Al-Quds University

An analysis of Al-Quds University’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the period from 2019 to 2022 reveals a notable fluctuation. The years 2019 and 2022 witnessed relatively high GHG emissions, whereas 2020 and 2021 demonstrated considerably lower emissions. This variation can be largely attributed to the global COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent changes in the university’s operations.

From March 2020 to December 2021, in response to the global health crisis, Al-Quds University transitioned to remote learning and drastically curtailed on-campus activities. The reduction in travel, both by university-owned vehicles and commuting by students and staff, as well as decreased energy use from buildings and facilities, significantly reduced the university’s GHG emissions.

In addition, many aspects of university operations that contribute to Scope 3 emissions, such as procurement and waste generation, were also substantially reduced during this period due to the minimized campus activities and operations.

As the university gradually resumes normal operations, we anticipate that our GHG emissions will begin to increase as seen in 2022. This provides us with a unique opportunity to reassess our carbon footprint and establish strategies for a more sustainable operation in the post-pandemic era.

3         GHG Inventory Calculations

To conduct our GHG inventory, we followed the guidelines and methodologies recommended by the GHG Protocol Corporate Standard, which encompasses three scopes of emissions.

3.1        Scope 1 – Direct GHG Emissions

Direct emissions occur from sources that are owned or controlled by the University. These include emissions from combustion in owned or controlled boilers, furnaces, vehicles, and emissions from chemical production in owned or controlled process equipment.

In 2022, we meticulously analyzed and quantified emissions from the following sources:

3.1.1        Natural Gas

As a part of our continued efforts to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Al-Quds University is transparently documenting our use of natural gas, an important contributor to our overall emissions profile. This report focuses on the direct emissions (Scope 1) from our on-site use of natural gas. The base year for our calculations is 2019.

In order to calculate the GHG emissions from our consumption of natural gas, we multiplied the amount of gas consumed by the emission factor of the gas. The emission factor of butane, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is approximately 3.01 kg of CO2 per kg of butane burned. Our natural gas consumption was measured in kilograms (kg), with one cylinder of gas containing 12 kg of butane. The calculated GHG emissions are therefore reported in kg of CO2.

Here’s a year-by-year breakdown of our natural gas consumption and the corresponding estimated GHG emissions:

YearNatural Gas Consumption (kg)Estimated GHG Emissions (kg CO2)Estimated GHG emissions (tCO2e)
201934 cylinders * 12 kg/cylinder = 408 kg408 kg * 3.01 kg CO2/kg = 1,228 kg CO21.228
20207 cylinders * 12 kg/cylinder = 84 kg84 kg * 3.01 kg CO2/kg = 253 kg CO20.253
20214 cylinders * 12 kg/cylinder = 48 kg48 kg * 3.01 kg CO2/kg = 144 kg CO20.144
202217 cylinders * 12 kg/cylinder = 204 kg204 kg * 3.01 kg CO2/kg = 614 kg CO20.614

Please note that these figures are estimates. Actual emissions can vary based on a number of factors, including the efficiency of the appliances that are using the gas and the precise composition of the gas. However, these calculations provide a rough measure of our natural gas-related GHG emissions and serve as a foundation for setting reduction targets and monitoring progress.

Our goal is to continue this downward trend in our natural gas-related GHG emissions as we strive towards our 2050 (or sooner) net zero target. By continuing to monitor our energy consumption and making data-informed decisions, we aim to minimize our carbon footprint and contribute to global efforts to combat climate change.

Moving forward, Al-Quds University will persist in its commitment to transparency, continuously reporting on our emissions and making necessary adjustments to our strategies. We believe that every step, no matter how small, moves us closer to a sustainable and resilient future.

3.1.2        Non-Transport Fuels

Our operations involve the use of a variety of non-transport fuels, including those used for generators, maintenance equipment, and other campus operations. The GHG emissions from non-transport diesel fuel can be calculated using the emission factor for diesel fuel. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the emissions factor for diesel fuel is approximately 2.688 kg CO2/litre when combusted.

Here is a breakdown of the estimated GHG emissions from diesel fuel used at Al-Quds University for non-transport purposes:

YearDiesel Consumption (litres)Estimated GHG Emissions (kg CO2)Estimated GHG emissions (tCO2e)
2019650 litres650 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 1,747.2 kg CO21.7472
2020130 litres130 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 349.44 kg CO20.34944
2021180 litres180 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 483.84 kg CO20.48384
2022470 litres470 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 1,263.36 kg CO21.26336

The above numbers show that the university has been able to significantly reduce its diesel consumption in the years following 2019, with a slight increase in 2022. This overall reduction in diesel usage is a positive step towards reducing the university’s carbon footprint. However, it is important to note that the figures presented here are estimates. The actual emissions can vary based on a number of factors, including the efficiency of the generators and the precise composition of the diesel fuel used.

3.1.3        Transport Fuels

Fuel consumed by university-owned and operated vehicles were included in our direct emissions. For GHG emissions from transport fuels, we can also use the emissions factor for diesel fuel combustion provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which is approximately 2.688 kg CO2 per litre. Let’s calculate the estimated emissions based on the given fuel consumption data.

Al-Quds University directly operates a fleet of vehicles comprising a large bus and two small buses for transportation needs, which are an integral part of university operations. The fuel consumed by these vehicles contributes to the institution’s greenhouse gas emissions.

Here is a breakdown of the estimated GHG emissions from diesel fuel used in university-owned and operated vehicles:

YearDiesel Consumption (litres)Estimated GHG Emissions (kg CO2)Estimated GHG emissions (tCO2e)
20195200 litres5200 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 13,977.6 kg CO213.9776
20201800 litres1800 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 4,838.4 kg CO24.8384
20211600 litres1600 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 4,300.8 kg CO24.3008
20224300 litres4300 litres * 2.688 kg CO2/litre = 11,558.4 kg CO211.5584

In the future, Al-Quds University could explore options such as investing in more fuel-efficient vehicles or even transitioning to electric or hybrid models as part of our broader sustainability and climate action strategy. Continuing to monitor fuel usage and implementing reduction strategies will be key to reaching our target of net zero emissions by 2050 or sooner.


3.1.4        Refrigerant Gases

Emissions from leakage of refrigerants from cooling equipment were also part of our inventory. These were calculated using the total amount of each type of refrigerant refilled during the year, the associated global warming potential (GWP), and the specific leakage rate. The total emissions from refrigerant gases were approximately 200 metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

Refrigerant gases are used in a variety of applications at Al-Quds University, including air conditioning in buildings and vehicles, refrigeration in kitchens, and various laboratory equipment. Since these gases have high global warming potentials (GWPs), they contribute to the University’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this section, we will calculate the GHG emissions associated with the use of these refrigerant gases from 2019 through 2022.

The refrigerant gases used at Al-Quds University include R134a, which is used in refrigeration, and R410a, which is used in air conditioning. The amount of GHG emissions from these gases is calculated by multiplying the mass of the refrigerant gas added to the equipment (in kg) by its global warming potential (GWP). The GWP is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming over a 100-year period, compared to the same mass of carbon dioxide (which has a GWP of 1).

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the GWP of R134a is 1430 and that of R410a is 2088.

The emissions are reported in metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e), which allows for different greenhouse gases to be compared on a like-for-like basis relative to one unit of CO2.

Here’s a summary of the GHG emissions from refrigerant gases at Al-Quds University:


  • Refrigerators (R134a): 840 grams = 0.84 kg, Emissions = 0.84 kg * 1430 GWP = 1.2 tCO2e
  • Air Conditioning (R410a): 6430 grams = 6.43 kg, Emissions = 6.43 kg * 2088 GWP = 13.42 tCO2e
  • Total GHG emissions from refrigerant gases in 2019: 14.62 tCO2e


  • Refrigerators (R134a): 0 grams = 0 kg, Emissions = 0 kg * 1430 GWP = 0 tCO2e
  • Air Conditioning (R410a): 400 grams = 0.4 kg, Emissions = 0.4 kg * 2088 GWP = 0.8352 tCO2e
  • Total GHG emissions from refrigerant gases in 2020: 0.8352 tCO2e


  • Refrigerators (R134a): 306 grams = 0.306 kg, Emissions = 0.306 kg * 1430 GWP = 0.43758 tCO2e
  • Air Conditioning (R410a): 960 grams = 0.96 kg, Emissions = 0.96 kg * 2088 GWP = 2.00448 tCO2e
  • Total GHG emissions from refrigerant gases in 2021: 2.44206 tCO2e


  • Refrigerators (R134a): 630 grams = 0.63 kg, Emissions = 0.63 kg * 1430 GWP = 0.9009 tCO2e
  • Air Conditioning (R410a): 3250 grams = 3.25 kg, Emissions = 3.25 kg * 2088 GWP = 6.786 tCO2e
  • Total GHG emissions from refrigerant gases in 2022: 7.6869 tCO2e


YearRefrigerators (R134a) emissions (tCO2e)Air Conditioning (R410a) emissions (tCO2e)Total GHG emissions from refrigerant gases (tCO2e)

The emissions from refrigerant gases have varied over the years, from a high of 14.62 tCO2e in 2019 to a low of 0.8352 tCO2e in 2020. These fluctuations can be attributed to changes in the frequency of equipment refills, the amount of refrigerant gas used, and the specific types of gases utilized. Al-Quds University is committed to monitoring and minimizing these emissions as part of our sustainability strategy.

It’s clear from this table that the GHG emissions from refrigerant gases have fluctuated over these years, and they are influenced by the amount and type of refrigerant gas used, as well as the frequency of equipment refills. By keeping track of these emissions, Al-Quds University can take steps to reduce their environmental impact.


3.2        Scope 2 – Energy Indirect GHG Emissions

The evaluation and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are fundamental elements of effective sustainability strategies. At Al-Quds University, these strategies have taken shape in a variety of ways, one of which is monitoring and working to reduce the university’s Scope 2 emissions – those resulting from purchased electricity consumption. This report presents a detailed calculation and analysis of GHG emissions resulting from electricity usage at Al-Quds University over several years.

3.2.1        Baseline Year

The baseline year for our calculations is 2019. This year serves as a standard measure, representing a snapshot of the university’s operations before the implementation of significant energy conservation and sustainability initiatives.

3.2.2        Methodology

To calculate the GHG emissions associated with our electricity consumption, we relied on average emissions factors provided by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The factor, relevant for electricity produced from diesel power plants in non-OECD countries, stands at approximately 0.7 kg of CO2 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) consumed.

We obtained the total electricity consumption data from Al-Quds University’s electricity invoices for each relevant year. By multiplying the energy consumed (in kWh) by the emissions factor (in kg CO2/kWh), we estimated the CO2 emissions for that year.

The calculation formula is as follows:

CO2 emissions (kg) = Electricity consumption (kWh) x Emission factor (kg CO2/kWh)

3.2.3        Results

The following table summarizes the annual electricity consumption and the corresponding estimated CO2 emissions for Al-Quds University from 2019 through 2022:

YearElectricity Consumption (million kWh)Estimated GHG Emissions (thousand tCO2e)

As an example, the detailed calculation for the year 2022 is as follows:

CO2 emissions (kg) = 3,500,000 kWh (3.5 million kWh) x 0.7 kg CO2/kWh = 2,450,000 kg CO2 = 2.45 thousand tonnes CO2

This comprehensive review of GHG emissions from electricity consumption at Al-Quds University underscores the institution’s dedication to transparency in GHG emissions reporting and its commitment to a more sustainable future.

By proactively working to reduce its carbon footprint, Al-Quds University strengthens its role as a pioneer in environmental responsibility within the academic sphere. The efforts made today will yield a greener and more sustainable environment for future generations.


3.3        Scope 3 – Other Indirect GHG Emissions

These are emissions that occur as a consequence of the activities of the University but from sources not owned or controlled by us. These are often the most difficult to quantify but can make up a significant portion of an institution’s carbon footprint.

In our inventory, we covers the calculation of emissions from several key categories, including business travel, student and staff commuting, purchased goods and services, waste disposal, and ICT equipment usage.

3.3.1        Business Travel

Business travel includes air, rail, personal car, rental car, bus, etc. This information was collected from invoices and travel logs. The emissions are calculated based on the distance traveled, type of vehicle, and emission factors specific to each mode of transport.

Calculation Methodology: GHG emissions were calculated by multiplying the total distance traveled (in km) by an average emission factor of 2.68 kg CO2e/L and assuming an average fuel efficiency of 10 km/L.

YearEstimated TripsAverage Distance per Trip (km)Total Distance (km)GHG Emissions (tCO2e)


3.3.2        Student and Staff Commuting

Student and staff commuting include transportation to and from university. This data was collected from surveys and the university records. Emissions are calculated based on the distance traveled, mode of transport, and specific emission factors

Calculation Methodology: GHG emissions were calculated by multiplying the total distance traveled (in km) by an average emission factor of 2.68 kg CO2e/L and assuming an average fuel efficiency of 10 km/L.

YearEstimated CommutersAverage Distance per Day (km)Total Distance (km)GHG Emissions (tCO2e)


3.3.3        Purchased Goods and Services

This includes paper, electronics, etc. Data was collected from invoices and purchasing records.

Calculation Methodology: We’ll assume that every $1,000 spent results in approximately 0.4 tCO2e, a rough global average according to WRI.

YearTotal Expenditure ($)GHG Emissions (tCO2e)


3.3.4        Waste Disposal

Waste includes solid waste and wastewater. The Data was collected from waste management facilities and invoices. Emissions are calculated based on the type of waste and specific emission factors.

Calculation Methodology: The emissions from waste disposal vary depending on the type of waste and the disposal method. For simplicity, we’ll use an average factor of 1.5 kg CO2e per kg of waste, again from WRI.

YearTotal Waste (kg)GHG Emissions (tCO2e)


3.3.5        ICT Equipment

This Data was collected from ICT equipment records.

Calculation Methodology: GHG emissions were calculated by multiplying the energy consumed (in kWh) by an emission factor of 0.475 kg CO2e/kWh.

YearNumber of DevicesEnergy Consumption (kWh)GHG Emissions (tCO2e)


3.3.6        Estimating Scope 3 Emissions

Compiling the necessary data and estimating Scope 3 emissions present unique challenges. The diversity and complexity of sources, coupled with the indirect nature of these emissions, often make data gathering a difficult task. Yet, despite these complexities, Al-Quds University has remained committed to enhancing its methodologies and processes for collecting this critical information.

One of the main challenges we encountered was the lack of consistent and readily available data, particularly in areas such as procurement and waste management. Moreover, quantifying certain indirect emissions like those from student and employee commuting or from contracted services required in-depth research and carefully calibrated estimates.

Despite these challenges, Al-Quds University has made significant strides in improving the accuracy and comprehensiveness of our Scope 3 emissions data. We have improved our data collection methods, implemented more robust estimation methodologies, and have started to work more closely with our various partners and stakeholders to ensure we have access to the most accurate and up-to-date information.

We are continuously refining our processes, learning from our experiences, and adapting international best practices to our local context. As we enhance our understanding of Scope 3 emissions and improve our methodologies, we will continue to update our GHG Inventory. This ongoing effort not only allows us to better understand our environmental impact but also enables us to identify opportunities for improvement and create a more sustainable future for our community.

3.4        Assessment of Uncertainty

We strive to ensure our GHG inventory is as accurate as possible; however, we acknowledge that uncertainties are inherent in any emissions estimation process. Sources of uncertainty can include the accuracy of primary data, the appropriateness and precision of emissions factors, and methodological choices. We aim to reduce these uncertainties through continual improvements in data collection, calculation methodologies, and by aligning ourselves with the best practices in GHG reporting.

4         Summary

Al-Quds University’s commitment to sustainability involves ongoing improvement of our GHG emissions inventory. We will continue to enhance our methodologies, strengthen the accuracy of our data, and expand the boundaries of our inventory where possible. We’re also committed to exploring and implementing strategies to reduce our emissions, such as energy efficiency measures, renewable energy sourcing, and promoting sustainable commuting options.

4.1        Summary of 2019 GHG Emissions

In 2019, Al-Quds University’s GHG emissions were significantly high. This can be attributed to normal on-campus operations, including energy consumption, vehicle operation, and the use of refrigerants, among other factors. As it’s a pre-pandemic year, the GHG emissions levels of 2019 serve as a benchmark for evaluating the university’s emissions during regular operation conditions.

4.1.1        Scope 1 Emissions (tCO2e)

Direct emissions in 2019 were driven primarily by the combustion of natural gas, diesel for generators, and transport fuels, as well as emissions from refrigerants.


Natural GasNon-Transport FuelsTransport FuelsRefrigerant GasesTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)

4.1.2        Scope 2 Emissions (tCO2e)

Indirect emissions from purchased electricity for all university buildings were substantial, in line with the standard operating procedures.

Electricity Total GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.1.3        Scope 3 Emissions (tCO2e)

Other indirect emissions mainly resulted from business travel, commuting, and waste disposal, which were all at normal levels before the COVID-19 pandemic.

Business TravelStudent and Staff CommutingPurchased Goods and ServicesWaste DisposalICT EquipmentTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.2        Summary of 2020 GHG Emissions

The year 2020 marked a significant reduction in the university’s GHG emissions, primarily due to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic led to a swift transition to remote learning, reduced campus activities, and significantly lower travel, which in turn resulted in lower emissions.

4.2.1        Scope 1 Emissions (tCO2e)

Direct emissions fell dramatically, with reduced usage of natural gas, diesel, and transport fuels due to the transition to remote learning and working.

Natural GasNon-Transport FuelsTransport FuelsRefrigerant GasesTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.2.2        Scope 2 Emissions (tCO2e)

The campus closure led to a sharp decline in electricity consumption, thus reducing Scope 2 emissions.

Electricity Total GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.2.3        Scope 3 Emissions (tCO2e)

With travel restrictions and a shift to online meetings, business travel, and commuting dropped significantly, reducing the Scope 3 emissions.

Business TravelStudent and Staff CommutingPurchased Goods and ServicesWaste DisposalICT EquipmentTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.3        Summary of 2021 GHG Emissions

In 2021, the lower emissions trend continued, again due to ongoing pandemic restrictions and the continuation of remote learning. This year saw a further reduction in travel and campus activities, which resulted in lower energy consumption and reduced emissions compared to the pre-pandemic year of 2019.

4.3.1        Scope 1 Emissions (tCO2e)

Direct emissions remained low in 2021, reflecting the continued reduced on-campus activities.

Natural GasNon-Transport FuelsTransport FuelsRefrigerant GasesTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.3.2        Scope 2 Emissions (tCO2e)

With the campus partially closed for most of the year, electricity consumption remained low, leading to lower Scope 2 emissions.

Electricity Total GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.3.3        Scope 3 Emissions (tCO2e)

Although there was a slight increase in commuting as some restrictions eased, business travel remained minimal, resulting in lower Scope 3 emissions.

Business TravelStudent and Staff CommutingPurchased Goods and ServicesWaste DisposalICT EquipmentTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.4        Summary of 2022 GHG Emissions

With the easing of pandemic restrictions in 2022, the university began to return to normal operations, which was reflected in the increased GHG emissions compared to the previous two years. Despite the increase, the lessons learned during the pandemic regarding energy use and remote operations can provide valuable insights for future sustainability efforts.

4.4.1        Scope 1 Emissions (tCO2e)

Direct emissions increased in 2022 with the return to on-site learning and working, leading to increased consumption of natural gas, diesel, and transport fuels.

Natural GasNon-Transport FuelsTransport FuelsRefrigerant GasesTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.4.2        Scope 2 Emissions (tCO2e)

Electricity consumption rose as buildings reopened, leading to a surge in Scope 2 emissions.

Electricity Total GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.4.3        Scope 3 Emissions (tCO2e)

As people returned to campus and business travel resumed, Scope 3 emissions increased. However, the use of online platforms for meetings and some learning activities helped offset a part of this rise.

Business TravelStudent and Staff CommutingPurchased Goods and ServicesWaste DisposalICT EquipmentTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.5        Total Summary of GHG Emissions (2019-2022)

Over the four-year period, Al-Quds University’s total GHG emissions exhibited a fluctuating trend, primarily influenced by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.5.1        Scope 1 – Direct Emissions

Over the 2019-2022 period, direct GHG emissions were primarily driven by natural gas consumption, diesel fuel usage, transport fuels, and refrigerant gases. There was a marked decrease in Scope 1 emissions during 2020 and 2021 due to reduced on-campus activities and the transition to online learning and working. With the easing of pandemic restrictions and a return to normal operations in 2022, there was a significant uptick in Scope 1 emissions.

YearNatural GasNon-Transport FuelsTransport FuelsRefrigerant GasesTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)




4.5.2        Scope 2 – Indirect Emissions

Indirect emissions were chiefly caused by electricity consumption for the University buildings. The closure of the campus during 2020 and part of 2021 led to a significant drop in Scope 2 emissions. However, as the campus reopened, Scope 2 emissions increased in 2022.

YearElectricity Total GHG emissions (tCO2e)


4.5.3        Scope 3 – Other Indirect Emissions

Other indirect emissions were mostly a result of business travel, commuting, and waste disposal. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a notable decrease in these activities, especially in 2020 and 2021. Despite an increase in 2022, the continued use of online platforms for some activities helped to keep Scope 3 emissions below pre-pandemic levels.

YearBusiness TravelStudent and Staff CommutingPurchased Goods and ServicesWaste DisposalICT EquipmentTotal GHG emissions (tCO2e)



4.5.4        Scope 1,2, and 3 Emissions (tCO2e)

The following table provides a comparative snapshot of our GHG emissions over the past four years:

YearScope 1 Emissions (tCO2e)Scope 2 Emissions (tCO2e)Scope 3 Emissions (tCO2e)


As we conclude this report, we underscore our commitment to the goal of sustainability and environmental responsibility. Our alignment with the GHG Protocol Corporate Standard and the regular undertaking of a GHG emissions inventory is a testament to this commitment, as we work towards a sustainable future at Al-Quds University and beyond.

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